The king would end his life in the capital, assassinated in a narrow street near Les Halles marketplace in In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between andrebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares.
The Commune held power for two months, until it was harshly suppressed by the French army during the "Bloody Week" at the end of May It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre.
In Mayprotesting students occupied the Sorbonne and put up barricades in the Latin Quarter. On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the Paris Commune seized power in Paris.
After many modifications, the new area, named the Metropolis of Grand Pariswith a population of 6. The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German long-range guns.
The architect, Charles Garnierdescribed the style simply as "Napoleon the Third. Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the movement grew into a two-week general strike. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France.
After Richelieu's death init was the renamed the Palais-Royal. Paris in the Middle AgesParis in the 16th centuryand Paris in the 17th century By the end of the 12th century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France.
None of the children came back. The May events in France resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris into 13 independent campuses. To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the Grands Boulevards of today.
This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: Late in the 19th century, Paris hosted two major international expositions: Inas the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined, along with more than 16, others throughout Franceduring the Reign of Terror.
On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalidesacquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastillea symbol of royal authority. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born.
On 17 Octoberan unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the police and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine.
Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing, fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods. Paris in the 18th centuryParis during the Second Empireand Haussmann's renovation of Paris Paris grew in population from aboutin toin It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high.
After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January The first railway line to Paris opened inbeginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city.
After the marshland between the river Seine and its slower 'dead arm' to its north was filled in around the 10th century,  Paris's cultural centre began to move to the Right Bank. Bartholomew's Day petit casino villeneuve la garenne in which thousands of French Protestants were killed. Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority.
It was the birthplace of FauvismCubism and abstract art  and authors such as Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches to literature.
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