When offering single deck blackjack games, casinos are more likely to disallow doubling on soft hands or after splitting, to restrict resplitting, require higher minimum bets, and to pay the player less than 3: Scrape cards against table in handheld games ; tap the table with finger or wave hand toward body in games dealt face up.
Some casinos do not give non-controlling players this option, and require that the wager of a player not electing to split remains with the first of the two post-split hands. The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, and in "hole card" games immediately receives its second card face down the hole cardwhich the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack.
Players with a blackjack may also take insurance, and in taking maximum insurance they commit themselves to winning an amount exactly equal to their main wager, regardless of the dealer's outcome. Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play.
Non-controlling players may follow the controlling player by putting down an additional bet or decline to do so, instead associating their existing wager with one of the two post-split hands. The variation where the dealer must hit soft 17 is abbreviated "H17" in blackjack literature, with "S17" used for the stand-on-soft variation.
In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is neither drawn nor consulted until the players have all played their hands. The rules of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table, failing which there is an expectation that casino staff will provide them on request.
The increase in house edge per unit increase in the number of decks is most dramatic when comparing the single deck game to the two-deck game, and becomes progressively smaller as more decks are added. Surrender only available as first decision of a hand: After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table.
The dealer separates the two cards and draws an additional card on each, placing one bet with each hand. Cards are dealt either from one or two handheld decks, from a dealer's shoeor from a shuffling machine.
Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have blackjack less than one-third of the time. If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win.
Player decisions[ edit ] "Doubling Down" redirects here.
Between one and eight standard card decks are shuffled together. When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in counterclockwise order: The following table illustrates the mathematical effect on the house edge of the number of decks, by considering games with various deck counts under the following ruleset: Place additional chips beside the original bet outside the betting box, and point with one finger.
Slide cards under chips in handheld games ; wave hand horizontally in games dealt face up. In a multi-hand, face-up, single deck game, it is possible to establish whether insurance is a good bet simply by observing the other cards on the table after the deal; even if there are just 2 player hands exposed, and neither of their two initial cards is a ten, then 16 in 47 of the remaining cards are tens, which is larger than 1 in 3, so insurance is a good bet.
Take no more cards, also known as "stand pat", "stick", or "stay". If a player receives 21 on the 1st and 2nd card it is considered a "natural" or "blackjack" and the player is paid out immediately unless dealer also has a natural, in which case the hand ties.
Advantage play techniques can sometimes identify such situations. Number of decks All things being equal, using fewer decks decreases the house edge.
The eye in the sky usually makes a video recording of the table, which helps in resolving disputes and identifying dealer mistakes, and is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat. Some games give the player a fifth option, "surrender".
Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than 3: Take another card from the dealer.
This mainly reflects an increased likelihood of player blackjack, since if the players draws a ten on their first card, the subsequent probability of drawing an ace is higher with fewer decks. If the hand value exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it are immediately forfeit. After all boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand busts or achieves a value of 17 or higher a dealer total of 17 including an ace, or "soft 17", must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others.
At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play. When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.
Occasionally, in the case of ten-valued cards, some casinos allow splitting only when the cards have the identical ranks; for instance, a hand of may be split, but not one of king. The loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through ignorance is generally expected to be greater.
Each option has a corresponding hand signal.
In the event of a disagreement between a player's hand signals and their words, the hand signal takes precedence. The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, and the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand; the other players of that box are said to "play behind".
This is an elementary example of the family of advantage play techniques known as card counting. If the first two cards of a hand have the same value, the player can split them into two hands, by moving a second bet equal to the first into an area outside the betting box.
The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.
It also reflects a decreased likelihood of blackjack-blackjack push in a game with fewer decks. Non-controlling players may double their wager or decline to do so, but they are bound by the controlling player's decision to take only one card.
If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's, and loses if it is lower. The player then plays out the two separate hands in turn; except for a few restrictions, the hands are treated as independent new hands, with the player winning or losing their wager separately for each hand.
Number cards count as their natural value; the jack, queen, and king also known as "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10; aces are valued as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice. The players' initial cards may be dealt face up or face down more common in single-deck games. On their turn, players must choose whether to "hit" take a card"stand" end their turn"double" double wager, take a single card and finish"split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game.
An ace and any combination of 6. That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting. When the player surrenders, the house takes half the player's bet and returns the other half to the player; this terminates the player's interest in the hand. After receiving an initial two cards, the player has up to four standard options: However the insurance outcome is strongly anti-correlated with that of the main wager, and if the player's priority is to reduce variationthey might choose to pay for this.
Insurance[ edit ] If the dealer's upcard is an ace, the player is offered the option of taking "insurance" before the dealer checks the hole card.
The request to surrender is made verbally, there being no standard hand signal. The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders. Wins are paid out at 1: Dealer's hand revealed Bets settled At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Hitting split aces is usually not allowed.
It is attractive although not necessarily wise for the player to insure against the possibility of a dealer blackjack by making a maximum "insurance" bet, in which case the "insurance proceeds" will make up for the concomitant loss on the original bet. The idea is that the dealer's second card has a fairly high probability nearly one-third to be ten-valued, giving the dealer blackjack and disappointment for the player.
The third card is placed at right angles to signify that the player cannot receive any more cards. On reaching 21 including soft 21the hand is normally required to stand; busting is an irrevocable loss and the players' wagers are immediately forfeited to the house. It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a chance of one in three of being a ten.
Hand signals are used to assist the " eye in the sky ", a person or video camera located above the table and sometimes concealed behind one-way glass.
However, usually all value cards are treated the same. The advantage of the dealer's position in blackjack relative to the player comes from the fact that if the player busts, the player loses, regardless of whether the dealer subsequently busts.
Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are sometimes available. The additional bet is placed in the betting box next to the original bet.
Over variations of blackjack have been documented. The recording can further be used to identify advantage players whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers. Casinos generally compensate by tightening other rules in games with fewer decks, in order to preserve the house edge or discourage play altogether.
Blackjack pays 2 to 1 additional chips next to the original bet outside the betting blackjack pays 2 to 1 point with two fingers spread into a V formation. Furthermore, the insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play. Doubling and further splitting of post-split hands may be restricted, and an ace and ten value card after a split are counted as a non-blackjack Substituting an "H17" rule with an "S17" rule in a game benefits the player, decreasing the house edge by about 0.